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Latest Cellular processes Stories

2010-05-26 11:54:40

A defective, mutant strain of the bacterium that causes gum disease could provide a clue to potential treatments for Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and a number of other diseases. Researchers from the University of Florida College of Dentistry reported their findings May 25 at the 110th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology in San Diego. Autophagy, or "self-eating," is an essential component of cellular survival and defense against invading organisms. It is how the cell degrades...

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2010-05-18 06:44:24

Caltech-led team provides evidence of key roles for cell-cycle length and chromosome duplication without division The sepals of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana"”commonly known as the mouse-eared cress"”are characterized by an outer layer of cells that vary widely in their sizes, and are distributed in equally varied patterns and proportions. Scientists have long wondered how the plant regulates cell division to create these patterns"”in other words, how it decides which and...

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2010-05-10 12:15:56

Mutations that cause Parkinson's disease prevent cells from destroying defective mitochondria, according to a study published online May 10 in the Journal of Cell Biology. Defects in the ubiquitin ligase Parkin are linked to early-onset cases of this neurodegenerative disorder. The wild-type protein promotes the removal of impaired mitochondria by a specialized version of the autophagy pathway called mitophagy, delivering mitochondria to the lysosomes for degradation. Mitochondria are often...

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2010-05-07 08:59:35

Proteins called cohesins ensure that newly copied chromosomes bind together, separate correctly during cell division, and are repaired efficiently after DNA damage. Scientists at the Carnegie Institution have found for the first time that cohesins are needed in different concentrations for their different functions. This discovery helps to explain how certain developmental disorders, such as Cornelia de Lange and Roberts Syndrome arise without affecting cell division essential to development....

2010-04-29 08:44:54

The findings may lead to better methods to deliver drugs A team of scientists at The Scripps Research Institute and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has discovered the structure of a protein that pinches off tiny pouches from cells' outer membranes. Cells use these pouches, or vesicles, to carry nutrients and other essential substances, but many medicines also hitch a ride inside them. The structure of the protein, called dynamin, is helping to answer many longstanding questions about...

2010-04-12 07:20:00

Findings by Einstein researchers suggest treatment strategies In a step towards a possible treatment for Huntington's disease, scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have shown for the first time that the accumulation of a mutated protein may explain damaging cellular behavior in Huntington's disease. Their research is described in the April 11 online edition of Nature Neuroscience. Huntington's disease, which afflicted the folksinger Woody Guthrie, is a...

2010-03-15 16:04:56

A quest that began over a decade ago with a chance observation has reached a milestone: the identification of a gene that may regulate regeneration in mammals. The absence of this single gene, called p21, confers a healing potential in mice long thought to have been lost through evolution and reserved for creatures like flatworms, sponges, and some species of salamander. In a report published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers from The Wistar Institute...

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2010-03-05 10:31:37

Max Planck scientists develop new strategy to play major role in research on human diseases Cells may not have a mouth, but they still need to ingest substances from the external environment. If this process - known as endocytosis - is affected, it can lead to infectious diseases or cardio-vascular diseases, cancer, Huntington's and diabetes. In cooperation with the Center for Information Services and High Performance Computing (ZIH) at the Dresden University of Technology, scientists from...

2010-03-04 16:48:05

Scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, have identified a protein called Sestrin that serves as a natural inhibitor of aging and age-related pathologies in fruit flies. They also showed that Sestrin, whose structure and biochemical function are conserved between flies and humans, is needed for regulation of a signaling pathway that is the central controller of aging and metabolism. The work, led by Michael Karin, PhD, Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology...

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2010-02-22 09:05:02

Regulatory proteins common to all eukaryotic cells can have additional, unique functions in embryonic stem (ES) cells, according to a study in the February 22 issue of the Journal of Cell Biology. If cancer progenitor cells"”which function similarly to stem cells"”are shown to rely on these regulatory proteins in the same way, it may be possible to target them therapeutically without harming healthy neighboring cells. The new study, by Thomas Fazzio and Barbara Panning (University...


Word of the Day
caparison
  • A cloth or covering, more or less ornamented, laid over the saddle or furniture of a horse, especially of a sumpter-horse or horse of state.
  • Clothing, especially sumptuous clothing; equipment; outfit.
  • To cover with a caparison, as a horse.
  • To dress sumptuously; adorn with rich dress.
This word ultimately comes from the Medieval Latin 'cappa,' cloak.
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