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Latest Centromere Stories

2012-12-26 12:46:07

New York University biologists have identified how a vital protein is loaded by others into the centromere, the part of the chromosome that plays a significant role in cell division. Their findings shed new light on genome replication and may offer insights into the factors behind the production of abnormal numbers of chromosomes. Their findings appear in the latest issue of the journal the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The researchers focused on the organization and...

2012-07-20 01:54:20

Stowers team reconciles puzzling findings relating to centromere structure Scientists at the Stowers Institute of Medical Research have developed an innovative method to count the number of fluorescent molecules in a cluster and then applied the novel approach to settle a debate rampant among cell biologists–namely, how DNA twists into a unique chromosomal structure called the centromere. Knowing this helps explain how cells navigate the hazards of division and avoid the disastrous...

2012-01-06 10:11:28

Researchers at the University of California, San Francisco and the Stowers Institute for Medical Research have discovered that planarians, tiny flatworms fabled for their regenerative powers, completely lack centrosomes, cellular structures that organize the network of microtubules that pulls chromosomes apart during cell division. The flatworms' unique and unexpected characteristic, detailed in the Jan. 5, 2012 issue of Science Express, not only allowed lead author Juliette Azimzadeh,...

2011-12-12 16:15:22

Scientists show how cells accurately inherit information that is not contained in their genes All 10 trillion cells in the adult human body are genetically identical, but develop into distinct cell types, such as muscle cells, skin cells or neurons, by activating some genes while inhibiting others. Remarkably, each specialized cell maintains a memory of their individual identity by remembering which genes should be kept on or off, even when making copies of themselves. This type of memory...

2011-11-14 11:32:32

A cell's genome maintains its integrity by organizing some of its regions into a super-compressed form of DNA called heterochromatin. In the comparatively simple organism fission yeast, a cellular phenomenon known as RNA interference (RNAi) plays an essential role in assembling heterochromatin, which keeps the compressed DNA in an inactive or "silent" state. Central to this process is a large protein complex that physically anchors various molecules involved in heterochromatin assembly to the...

2011-11-09 08:00:00

The Agricultural Sciences Network Life-Sciences.net features the latest scientific publications in this discipline. The most recently featured articles deal with characterization of a wild relative of rice and biocontrol of black scurf on potato. (PRWEB) November 09, 2011 The Agricultural Sciences category of the Life-Sciences Magazine covers the cultivation and production of crops, raising of livestock, and postharvest processing of natural products. This section currently contains more...

2011-11-04 22:57:59

The histone protein CenH3 is both necessary and sufficient to trigger the formation of centromeres and pass them on from 1 generation to the next Centromeres are specialised regions of the genome, which can be identified under the microscope as the primary constriction in X-shaped chromosomes. The cell skeleton, which distributes the chromosomes to the two daughter cells during cell division, attaches to the centromeres. In most organisms the position of the centromere is not determined by...

How Chromosomes Find Each Other
2011-11-02 09:09:55

[ Watch the Video ] After more than a century of study, mysteries still remain about the process of meiosis–a special type of cell division that helps insure genetic diversity in sexually-reproducing organisms. Now, researchers at Stowers Institute for Medical Research shed light on an early and critical step in meiosis. The research, to be published in the Nov. 8, 2011 issue of Current Biology, clarifies the role of key chromosomal regions called centromeres in the formation of a...

2011-08-26 15:36:49

Researchers at IRB Barcelona discover a crucial mechanism controlling the segregation of genetic material from parent to daughter cells. A finely tuned process of degradation tightly regulates CenH3 protein levels to ensure the correct function of the cell division machinery in Drosophila. From bacteria to humans, all forms of life are based on the capacity of one cell to divide into two or more identical daughter cells. In doing so, cells have to produce a copy of their genetic material...

2011-07-22 14:17:40

Researchers from Trinity College Dublin have uncovered the evolutionary mechanisms that have caused increases or decreases in the numbers of chromosomes in a group of yeast species during the last 100-150 million years. The study, to be published on July 21st in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics, offers an unprecedented view of chromosome complement (chromosome number) changes in a large group of related species. A few specific cases of chromosome number changes have been studied in...


Word of the Day
endocarp
  • The hard inner (usually woody) layer of the pericarp of some fruits (as peaches or plums or cherries or olives) that contains the seed.
This word comes from the Greek 'endon,' in, within, plus the Greek 'kardia,' heart.
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