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Latest Cerebrum Stories

2013-08-08 09:13:32

Trying to explain riding a bike is difficult because it is an implicit memory. The body knows what to do, but thinking about the process can often interfere. So why is it that under certain circumstances paying full attention and trying hard can actually impede performance? A new UC Santa Barbara study, published today in the Journal of Neuroscience, reveals part of the answer. There are two kinds of memory: implicit, a form of long-term memory not requiring conscious thought and expressed...

2013-08-07 10:27:53

"Pressing the button of the lift at your work place, or apartment building is an automatic action – a habit. You don't even really look at the different buttons; your hand is almost reaching out and pressing on its own. But what happens when you use the lift in a new place? In this case, your hand doesn't know the way, you have to locate the buttons, find the right one, and only then your hand can press a button. Here, pushing the button is a goal-directed action." It is...

2013-08-05 12:25:20

Using direct human brain recordings, a research team from Drexel University, the University of Pennsylvania, UCLA and Thomas Jefferson University has identified a new type of cell in the brain that helps people to keep track of their relative location while navigating an unfamiliar environment. The "grid cell," which derives its name from the triangular grid pattern in which the cell activates during navigation, is distinct among brain cells because its activation represents multiple...

False Memories Implanted In Mice
2013-07-26 05:15:40

redOrbit Staff & Wire Reports - Your Universe Online Researchers exploring the phenomenon of false memory have taken a page out of science fiction, successfully demonstrating that fake recollections could be implanted into the brains of mice. The study, which appears in Thursday's edition of the journal Science, might sound like something out of a Philip K. Dick short story or a Leonardo DiCaprio movie, but it has serious real-world implications, especially in the criminal justice...

Self-Control Through Precommitment More Effective Than Willpower
2013-07-25 08:38:14

April Flowers for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online The key to losing weight, or saving for the future, is avoiding temptation all together, according to a new study from the Universities of Cambridge and Dusseldorf. The study on self-control suggests avoidance is a better strategy than depending on will power alone. The study, published in Neuron, compared the effectiveness of willpower versus voluntarily restricting access to temptations, called 'precommitment'. For example,...

2013-07-23 12:29:37

Neural stem cells proliferate in the subventricular zone and hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult mammals. However, the number of endogenous neural stem cells is insufficient to prevent cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injuries such as vascular dementia, so it is important to stimulate endogenous neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. The ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 effectively and safely treats memory loss and cognitive impairments in patients with senile dementia. Prof. Yuliang...

2013-07-23 10:49:27

Research could have direct application for treating human drinking problems A research team led by scientists from the Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center at the University of California, San Francisco has identified circuitry in the brain that drives compulsive drinking in rats, and likely plays a similar role in humans. The scientists found they could reduce compulsive drinking in rats by inhibiting key neural pathways that run between the prefrontal cortex, which is involved with...

Unique Brain Pathway Allows Us To Learn Languages
2013-07-23 04:39:19

redOrbit Staff & Wire Reports - Your Universe Online A neural pathway unique to humans allows us to learn new words and languages, European scientists reported on Monday. Experts have long believed language acquisition - a distinctively human ability - depends on the integration of information between motor and auditory representation of words in the brain, although the precise neural mechanisms behind this interaction remained unclear. In the current study, researchers from the...

Mental Illness Gene Treatment Schizophrenia
2013-07-16 09:13:45

Rebekah Eliason for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online A new study involving brain impaired mice has the potential to improve therapy for people suffering from schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. While further research is necessary, this discovery is already being heralded as a major step toward understanding a variety of mental illnesses. The brain's prefrontal cortex, located in the anterior section of the frontal lobes, is associated with executive functions that help...

2013-07-11 11:04:50

Several human and animal studies have shown a relationship between a preference for highly sweet tastes and alcohol use disorders. Furthermore, the brain mechanisms of sweet-taste responses may share common neural pathways with responses to alcohol and other drugs. A new study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has found that recent drinking is related to the orbitofrontal-region brain response to an intensely sweet stimulus, a brain response that may serve as an important...


Latest Cerebrum Reference Libraries

Midbrain
2013-07-25 15:13:23

The midbrain, also known as the mesencephalon is the part of the brain most responsible for vision, motor control, arousal, temperature regulation, alertness and hearing. Formation and Orientation The midbrain is found under the cerebral cortex and above the hindbrain. The mesencephalon is not divided into any other portions of the brain unlike the other two vesicles that stem from the neural tube. There are four separate lobes on the side of the cerebral aqueduct within the...

Brain
2013-03-05 13:54:00

Formation and Orientation The development of the brain is broken down into stages. The basic evolution begins in the third week of the embryonic process where the neural plate is formed. By week four, the neural plate has developed into the neural tube. The anterior part of the tube, the telencephalon, grows rapidly as it prepares to later give way to the brain. As time goes on, cells begin to classify themselves as either neurons or glial cells, thus determining their functions. Glial...

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Word of the Day
endocarp
  • The hard inner (usually woody) layer of the pericarp of some fruits (as peaches or plums or cherries or olives) that contains the seed.
This word comes from the Greek 'endon,' in, within, plus the Greek 'kardia,' heart.
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