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Latest Chromosome Stories

2011-05-03 22:47:39

Plants adapt to the local weather and soil conditions in which they grow, and these environmental adaptations are known to evolve over thousands of years as mutations slowly accumulate in plants' genetic code. But a University of Rochester biologist has found that at least some plant adaptations can occur almost instantaneously, not by a change in DNA sequence, but simply by duplication of existing genetic material. Justin Ramsey's findings are published in the current Proceedings of the...

2011-05-02 12:43:00

DENVER, May 2, 2011 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Two scientists who pioneered research on the X and Y chromosomes have been chosen to receive the 2011 March of Dimes Prize in Developmental Biology. Patricia Ann Jacobs, OBE, DSc, FRS, professor of Human Genetics, Southampton University Medical School and co-director of Research, Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory, Salisbury, England and David C. Page, MD, director, Whitehead Institute, investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and...

2011-04-19 13:07:14

Berkeley Lab Scientists Discover Dynamic Double-Strand Break Repair in Heterochromatin DNA is under constant attack, from internal factors like free radicals and external ones like ionizing radiation. About 10 double-strand breaks "“ the kind that snap both backbones of the double helix "“ occur every time a human cell divides. To prevent not only gene mutations but broken chromosomes and chromosomal abnormalities known to cause cancer, infertility, and other diseases in humans,...

2011-04-14 21:03:08

Egg cells failing to properly arrange chromosomes Washington State University researchers have confirmed a critical step in cell division that results in age-related miscarriages and birth defects, including Down syndrome. Writing in the upcoming issue of the journal "Current Biology," the researchers say they recreated the conditions in which an egg cell will continue to undergo cell division without properly arranging its chromosomes, creating offspring with aneuploidy, or an abnormal...

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2011-04-04 20:44:18

Although the apple genome has already been sequenced, it can still take years for an apple breeder to see the first actual piece of fruit on a tree. That's why University of Illinois plant molecular geneticist Schuyler Korban jumped at the chance to help sequence the genome of the woodland strawberry "“ a close relative of the apple that blooms in a mere 15 weeks, making his work much more efficient."The woodland strawberry is a good surrogate system for genetic studies of other fruits...

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2011-03-07 07:40:00

Researchers from Cyprus report that a simple blood test can predict whether a baby is likely to have Down Syndrome. DNA differences between the mother and the fetus can be shown to accurately predict which fetuses are at risk of developing the syndrome, Reuters reports. "We believe we can modify this test and make it much easier and simple... (and then) we can have something ready to be introduced into the clinic," Philippos Patsalis, medical director of the Cyprus Institute of Neurology and...

2011-03-03 12:38:13

A novel study from Karolinska Institutet has deepened the understanding of how chromosome replication, one of life's most fundamental processes, works. In a long term perspective these results could eventually lead to novel cancer therapies. The study is presented in the prestigious scientific journal Nature. By studying DNA replication in yeast cells, researchers at Karolinska Institutet have discovered that a protein complex (Smc5/6) helps to release torsional stress created in the DNA...

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2011-03-03 09:55:00

Vive le difference? Not at the level of DNA. Men must increase gene expression on their lone X-chromosome to match the two X's possessed by women. A new study explains just how men manage to do that. What makes a man? His clothes? His car? His choice of scotch? The real answer, says Brown University biologist Erica Larschan, is the newly understood activity of a protein complex that, like a genetic power tool, gives enzymes on the X-chromosome an extra boost to increase gene expression. The...

2011-03-03 07:00:00

NEW HAVEN, Conn., March 3, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- The launch of a new, non-invasive test for the identification of Turner syndrome (TS) was announced today by JS Genetics. The test, XCAT-TS, is a simple cheek swab that identifies girls with Turner syndrome. Until now, Turner syndrome could only be diagnosed with a Karyotype, an invasive test that requires blood from the patient. The results of the XCAT-TS validation study were published in the February 2011 issue of Journal of Clinical...

2011-02-16 17:39:54

As a child grows, a short stature is not usually cause for concern, but it is often the only sign of a condition called Turner syndrome. Prevalent in girls, Turner syndrome is a genetic defect that short-circuits normal growth and leads to cardiac and renal problems. It is not commonly detected until age 10 or older when a youngster's unusually short height raises suspicions. This lag before diagnosis of the condition can delay the start of growth hormone therapy, which can help in achieving...


Word of the Day
baudekin
  • A rich embroidered or brocaded silk fabric woven originally with a warp of gold thread.
'Baudekin' seems to be an alternative form of 'baldachin,' from the Italian 'Baldacco,' Baghdad, the city where the material was made.
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