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Last updated on April 19, 2014 at 13:20 EDT

Latest Chromosome Stories

2010-09-30 20:06:50

A break in the two chromosomes has given scientists a break in finding a new gene involved in puberty, Medical College of Georgia researchers report. It's also helped clear up why some patients with delayed puberty have no sense of smell, said Dr. Lawrence C. Layman, chief of the MCG Section of Reproductive Endocrinology, Infertility and Genetics. The WRD11 gene interacts with a transcription factor that appears to be involved in development of gonadotropin releasing hormones that enable...

2010-09-17 13:55:29

The sequencing and analysis of the genome for the Criollo variety of the cacao tree, generally considered to produce the world's finest chocolate, was completed by an international team led by Claire Lanaud of CIRAD, France, with Mark Guiltinan of Penn State, and included scientists from 18 other institutions. "The large amount of information generated by this project dramatically changes the status of this tropical plant and its potential interest for the scientific community," said...

2010-09-16 17:28:25

New research from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) and The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), both in Toronto, Canada provides further clues as to why Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects four times more males than females. The scientists discovered that males who carry specific alterations of DNA on the sole X-chromosome they carry are at high risk of developing ASD. The research is published in the September 15 issue of Science Translational Medicine. ASD is a...

2010-09-03 14:42:31

Female induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, reprogrammed from human skin cells into cells that have the embryonic-like potential to become any cell in the body, retain an inactive X chromosome, stem cell researchers at UCLA have found. The finding could have implications for studying X chromosome-linked diseases such as Rett syndrome, caused by mutations in a gene located on the X chromosome. The findings differ from those seen in mouse skin cells that are reprogrammed into iPS cells, in...

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2010-08-30 06:20:00

One of the world's most popular fruits, the apple, has been genetically sequenced by scientists, which could lead to producing crisper, juicier and more flavorsome crops in the future. Scientists, reporting in the journal Nature Genetics, said the genome comprises 600 million base pairs, or "rungs" of DNA in the ladder of genetic code. The apple is a member of the Rosaceae family -- rose family -- which includes about 33 percent of all flowering plants. Other fruit species, like the peach,...

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2010-08-25 14:13:47

In a landmark study to be published in the journal Nature, scientists have been able to create the first picture of genetic processes that happen inside every cell of our bodies. Using a 3-D visualization method called X-ray crystallography, Song Tan, an associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Penn State University, has built the first-ever image of a protein interacting with the nucleosome -- DNA packed tightly into space-saving bundles organized around a protein core....

2010-08-20 14:01:56

Physical model describes the distribution of nucleosomes The DNA genomes of organisms whose cells possess nuclei are packaged in a highly characteristic fashion. Most of the DNA is tightly wrapped around protein particles called nucleosomes, which are connected to each other by flexible DNA segments, like pearls on a necklace. This arrangement plays a major role in deciding which genes are actively expressed, and thus which proteins can be synthesized in a given cell. The LMU Munich...

2010-08-16 14:54:20

NHGRI-supported researchers streamline DNA sequencing strategies to find rare disease genes quickly Using a new, rapid and less expensive DNA sequencing strategy, scientists have discovered genetic alterations that account for most cases of Kabuki syndrome, a rare disorder that causes multiple birth defects and mental retardation. Instead of sequencing the entire human genome, the new approach sequences just the exome, the 1-2 percent of the human genome that contains protein-coding genes....

2010-07-29 11:00:00

PHILADELPHIA, July 29 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ --A genetics research team based at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia continues to discover recurrent translocations--places in which two chromosomes exchange pieces of themselves. As many as 1 in 600 persons carry balanced chromosome translocations, which involve no loss or gain of DNA. Most such people appear healthy, but may have a child with abnormal chromosome composition and disabilities resulting from disrupted, extra or missing...

2010-07-21 23:08:36

Fast-growing farm-raised salmon and trout that are sterile can now be produced using a method developed by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists. Blocking reproduction can enhance growth, and is important for fish being reared in situations where reproduction is undesirable. The method allows researchers to more efficiently and reliably produce fish that have three sets of chromosomes, instead of the usual two sets. Fish with the extra set of chromosomes can't reproduce, so the...