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Latest Chromosome Stories

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2010-05-07 08:59:35

Proteins called cohesins ensure that newly copied chromosomes bind together, separate correctly during cell division, and are repaired efficiently after DNA damage. Scientists at the Carnegie Institution have found for the first time that cohesins are needed in different concentrations for their different functions. This discovery helps to explain how certain developmental disorders, such as Cornelia de Lange and Roberts Syndrome arise without affecting cell division essential to development....

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2010-04-29 14:55:11

Jumping Elements, Some of Which Cause Genetic Diseases, Become Incorporated in the Genome at Different Stages of Human Development The density of transposable (jumping) elements between sex chromosomes in primates may have important consequences for the studies of human genetic diseases, say Penn State University researchers.  Erika Kvikstad, a 2009 Penn State Ph.D. graduate in genetics, and Kateryna Makova, an associate professor of biology at Penn State, used a statistical regression...

2010-03-23 10:00:00

ALISO VIEJO, Calif., March 23 /PRNewswire/ -- Ambry Genetics today introduced The Ambry X-Linked Mental Retardation SuperPANEL(TM), a suite of genetic tests expected to pinpoint the cause of intellectual disability and X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). This panel marks the first time next generation sequencing technology, coupled with microarrays, Sanger sequencing and traditional Fragile X testing, is being made clinically available to address this disorder, giving physicians a full...

2010-03-16 16:00:02

Male mice born with female sex chromosomes experience hypertension seen in postmenopausal women Washington, DC "“ Researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC) have determined that something in female sex chromosomes appears to trigger a rise in blood pressure after the onset of menopause. This finding challenges the current belief that sex hormones are largely responsible for regulating blood pressure. Their work, reported online Monday in Hypertension, is the first of its...

2010-03-11 10:05:37

Landmark study is first to look at genome of all family members Researchers at the University of Utah and other institutions have sequenced for the first time the entire genome of a family, enabling them to accurately estimate the average rate at which parents pass genetic mutations to their offspring and also identify precise locations where parental chromosomes exchange information that creates new combinations of genetic traits in their children. Led by scientists at the Seattle-based...

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2010-02-25 13:48:42

Promiscuous females may be the key to a species' survival, according to new research by the Universities of Exeter and Liverpool. Published Feb. 25 in Current Biology, the study could solve the mystery of why females of most species have multiple mates, despite this being more risky for the individual. Known as 'polyandry' among scientists, the phenomenon of females having multiple mates is shared across most animal species, from insects to mammals. This study suggests that polyandry reduces...

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2010-02-22 09:05:02

Regulatory proteins common to all eukaryotic cells can have additional, unique functions in embryonic stem (ES) cells, according to a study in the February 22 issue of the Journal of Cell Biology. If cancer progenitor cells"”which function similarly to stem cells"”are shown to rely on these regulatory proteins in the same way, it may be possible to target them therapeutically without harming healthy neighboring cells. The new study, by Thomas Fazzio and Barbara Panning (University...

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2010-02-15 11:45:00

A new study reveals that a common underlying mechanism is shared by a group of previously unrelated disorders which all cause complex defects in brain development and function. Rett syndrome (RTT), Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Alpha-Thalassemia mental Retardation, X-linked syndrome (ATR-X) have each been linked with distinct abnormalities in chromatin, the spools of proteins and DNA that make up chromosomes and control how genetic information is read in a cell. Now, research,...

2010-02-02 09:22:57

Using sophisticated genetic technology, a consortium of researchers led by Baylor College of Medicine has narrowed down the reason for abnormalities in learning and behavior inherited in some families to loss of a specific gene called a nictotinic receptor. Finding the defect required scanning the genomes of more than 10,000 people, said Dr. Pawel Stankiewicz, assistant professor of molecular and human genetics at BCM and an author on the report in Nature Genetics. Links problems to a...

2010-01-14 12:39:47

Chromosomes move faster than we first thought. Research published in BioMed Central's open access journal, Genome Biology, details new findings about the way chromosomes move around the nucleus when leaving the proliferative stage of the cell cycle and entering quiescence "“ and the unexpected speed at which they move. Researchers from Brunel University's Institute for Cancer Genetics and Pharmacogenomics have been trying to understand how human chromosomes occupy different territories...