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Last updated on April 20, 2014 at 21:20 EDT

Latest Chromosome Stories

2009-10-18 12:26:47

Study led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital investigators expands understanding of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with Down syndrome, fueling hope for new treatment Researchers identified a new chromosomal abnormality in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that appears to work in concert with another mutation to give rise to cancer. This latest anomaly is particularly common in children with Down syndrome. The findings have already resulted in new diagnostic tests and...

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2009-10-03 09:44:55

Diversity of fish in East African lakes points to mechanism for evolution of sex chromosomes Biologists have genetically mapped the sex chromosomes of several species of cichlid fish from Lake Malawi, East Africa, and identified a mechanism by which new sex chromosomes may evolve. In research published in this week's issue of the journal Science, biologists Thomas Kocher, Reade Roberts and Jennifer Ser of the University of Maryland describe the genetic basis for two co-existing systems of...

2009-09-28 12:17:39

The Stowers Institute's Gerton Lab has provided new evidence to clarify the structure of nucleosomes containing Cse4, a centromere-specific histone protein required for proper kinetochore function, which plays a critical role in the process of mitosis. The work, conducted in yeast cells, was published in the most recent issue of Molecular Cell. The centromeric nucleosome acts as a guide for the position of the kinetochore. The kinetochore attaches the chromosome to a microtubule for...

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2009-09-20 08:50:00

Men that suffer from a rare disease where they are plagued with extra female genes can still produce children after having surgery that gathers their sperm, says a new study. Men with Klinefelter's syndrome have an extra X chromosome. Usually men have a single X and Y-chromosome, and women have two X chromosomes. Men with Klinefelter's syndrome have two X and one Y chromosome, which can affect their fertility. Dr. Ranjith Ramasamy at New York-Presbyterian Hospital employed a surgery that...

2009-09-18 07:37:58

The Stowers Institute's Baumann Lab has demonstrated how human cells protect chromosome ends from misguided repairs that can lead to cancer. The work, published in The EMBO Journal, a publication of the European Molecular Biology Organization, follows the team's 2007 in vitro demonstration of the role of the hRAP1 protein in preventing chromosome ends from being fused to new DNA breaks. Chromosomes are linear. Their ends (called telomeres) should look like DNA breaks to the proteins that...

2009-09-17 09:17:52

A Florida State University scientist says he's found the cause of chromosomal birth defects, such as Down, XYY, Edwards, Patau and Turner's syndromes. Using yeast genetics, Assistant Professor Hong-Guo Yu and colleagues selectively removed a single protein from the cell division process called meiosis and found that when the protein known as Pds5 is missing, chromosomes fail to segregate and pair up properly, and birth defects can result. Researchers said the study shines new light on the...

2009-09-16 15:04:06

Using yeast genetics and a novel scheme to selectively remove a single protein from the cell division process called meiosis, a cell biologist at The Florida State University found that when a key molecular player known as Pds5 goes missing, chromosomes fail to segregate and pair up properly, and birth defects such as Down syndrome can result. That discovery is groundbreaking, but so, too, is what principal investigator Hong-Guo Yu calls the "genetics trick" performed by his research team...

2009-09-14 15:41:39

New insights gained into how polyploidy and genomic change can lead to evolutionary change and plants' fitness and vigor An individual with Down syndrome and a male calico cat have one thing in common"”each has an extra chromosome. For animals, most instances of an extra chromosome result in birth defects or even death, but plants are another matter entirely. Many plants are able to survive the presence of an extra copy of their entire genome (known as polyploidy) and are often even...

2009-09-10 10:33:26

New study proves that communication between male and female occurs in our innermost beings In the week that the University of Leicester celebrates the 25th anniversary of the discovery of DNA fingerprinting (Thursday September 10) new findings from the world-renowned University of Leicester Department of Genetics reveal for the first time that the male and female do truly communicate "“at least at the fundamental genetic level. The research counters scientific theory that the X and Y...

2009-09-03 15:25:35

The unique mechanism behind the evolutionary survival of the human Y chromosome may also be responsible for a range of sex disorders, from failed sperm production to sex reversal to Turner Syndrome. Roughly six years ago, David Page's lab at Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research reported the discovery of eight large areas of mirror-imaged genetic sequences, or palindromes, along the Y chromosome. Because the Y chromosome essentially has no partner with which to swap genes, a process...