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Latest Chromosome Stories

Plant Chromosome Number Variation From Mediterranean Coasts To Tatra Mountains And Beyond
2012-11-27 15:37:25

Pensoft Publishers Chromosome number is the most basic feature concerning the genome of a species, and it is known for about one third of higher plant species. In particular, for plants of Italy, Slovakia, and Poland, online chromosome number databases have been developed: 'Chrobase.it — Chromosome numbers for the Italian flora', 'Karyological database of ferns and flowering plants of Slovakia' and 'Chromosome number database — PLANTS', respectively. The three datasets account...

Down Syndrome Researchers Remove Extra Chromosome
2012-11-12 14:52:09

Brett Smith for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online Geneticists from the University of Washington won a key victory in the battle against genetic diseases by successfully removing the extra chromosome 21 from cells derived from a person with Down syndrome, according to the team´s report in the journal Cell Stem Cell. Down syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21. In addition to the tell-tale facial features such as an abnormally small chin and...

2012-10-04 13:41:21

Scientists in Canada and the United States have used three-dimensional imaging techniques to settle a long-standing debate about how DNA and structural proteins are packaged into chromatin fibers. The researchers, whose findings are published in EMBO reports, reveal that the mouse genome consists of 10-nm chromatin fibers but did not find evidence for the wider 30-nm fibers that were previously thought to be important components of the DNA architecture. “DNA is an exceptionally long...

2012-08-21 10:31:50

The Nek9 protein is required for chromosomes to separate into two identical groups. Nek9 exerts its action between two molecules of interest for the pharmaceutical industry as anti-tumoral agents, and for which inhibitors are already in advanced stages of clinical trials. Nek9 could be added to the list of candidates. A study by the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) and the Center for Genomic Regulation (acronym in Catalan CRG) highlights the protein Nek9 as a...

2012-08-13 15:50:34

A broken chromosome is like an unmoored beansprout circling in search of attachment. If a cell tries to replicate itself with broken chromosomes, the cell will be killed and so it would very much like to find its lost end. Often, it finds a workable substitute: another nearby chromosome. When a broken chromosome attaches to another, or when chromosomes use a similar process to exchange genetic material, you have a translocation — genes end up fused to other genes, encoding a new...

A Look At The Early Evolution Of Sex Chromosomes
2012-08-06 18:24:30

Two new studies offer insight into sex chromosome evolution by focusing on papaya, a multimillion dollar crop plant with a sexual problem (as far as growers are concerned) and a complicated past. The findings are described in two papers in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The research reveals that the papaya sex chromosomes have undergone dramatic changes in their short evolutionary histories (they are about 7 million years old; by comparison, human sex chromosomes...

2012-07-11 14:34:21

Next week's Journal of Biological Chemistry "Paper of the Week" by Wai Mun Huang and colleagues at the University of Utah Health Sciences Center and the University of Minnesota reveals new insights into the molecular properties of the rod-shaped soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the pathogen responsible for crown gall disease, a tumor-forming infection in plants, such as tomatoes, walnuts, grapes and beets. The bacterium is parasitic: It infects its plant host by entering through...

2012-05-29 12:37:29

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia researchers shed light on genetic disorders tied to cohesin protein malfunction Researchers studying rare genetic disorders have uncovered insights into those diseases in biological structures that regulate chromosomes when cells divide. Focusing on the cohesin complex, a group of proteins forming a bracelet that encircles chromosome pairs, scientists have discovered mutations that disrupt cohesin, causing a recently recognized class of diseases called...

Scientists Gain Insights From Miscanthus Genome Maps
2012-05-16 08:07:00

Two reports were released this year on the genome of Miscanthus grasses, which are used in gardens, burned for energy and converted into liquid fuels. The first, led by the energy crop organization Ceres, appeared in the journal PLoS ONE; the second, from a team led by researchers at the University of Illinois, is in the journal BMC Genomics. The data, materials, methods and genetic markers used in the latter study are available to the public for further research. Scientists knew that...

DNA Replication Protein Plays Role In Cancer
2012-05-14 08:46:39

The foundation of biological inheritance is DNA replication This is a coordinated process in which DNA is copied at hundreds of thousands of different sites across the genome at the same time. If the copying mechanism doesn't work properly, the result may be cells with missing or extra genetic material, a hallmark of the genomic instability seen in most birth defects and cancers. Scientists at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have discovered a protein known as Cdt1....