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Latest Chromosome Stories

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2011-08-24 11:21:58

  An international team of researchers has used ancient DNA to produce compelling evidence that the lack of genetic diversity in modern stallions is the result of the domestication process. The team, which was led by Professor Michi Hofreiter from the University of York, UK, has carried out the first study on Y chromosomal DNA sequences from extinct ancient wild horses and found an abundance of diversity. The results, which are published in Nature Communications, suggest the...

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2011-08-18 13:48:11

When an egg cell is being formed, the cellular machinery which separates chromosomes is extremely imprecise at fishing them out of the cell's interior, scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, Germany, have discovered. The unexpected degree of trial-and-error involved in this process could explain why errors in the number of chromosomes in the egg cell are the leading cause of miscarriages and severe congenital diseases such as trisomies like Down's...

2011-08-09 07:19:10

(Ivanhoe Newswire) "“ Scientists have completed a map of genetic mutations occurring in the second-most common form of brain cancer, oligodendroglioma. The findings appear to reveal the biological cause of the tumors. Oligodendroglioma accounts for up to 20 percent of brain cancers and more commonly occur in younger people and 30 to 45. To create the map, the scientists sequenced protein-coding genes in seven oligodendroglioma tissue samples, and focused attention on recurring mutations...

2011-08-08 06:43:56

The human genome is peppered with repeated DNA elements that can vary from a few to thousands of consecutive copies of the same sequence. During meiosis"”the cell division that produces sperm and eggs"”repetitive elements place the genome at risk for dangerous rearrangements from genome reshuffling. This recombination typically does not occur in repetitive DNA, in part because much of it is assembled into specialized heterochromatin. Other mechanisms that restrain recombination in...

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2011-08-01 11:10:33

Whatever does not kill a plant may actually make it stronger. After being partially eaten by grazing animals, for example, some plants grow bigger and faster and reproduce more successfully than they otherwise would. In a new study, researchers report that one secret to these plants' post-traumatic triumph lies in their ability to duplicate their chromosomes "“ again and again "“ without undergoing cell division. While this process, called "endoreduplication," is not new to...

2011-07-26 22:15:16

Cancer patients may view their tumors as parasites taking over their bodies, but this is more than a metaphor for Peter Duesberg, a molecular and cell biology professor at the University of California, Berkeley. Cancerous tumors are parasitic organisms, he said. Each one is a new species that, like most parasites, depends on its host for food, but otherwise operates independently and often to the detriment of its host. In a paper published in the July 1 issue of the journal Cell Cycle,...

2011-07-06 15:32:38

At present, when a woman undergoes preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) in a fertility clinic, doctors are trying to select an egg or an embryo that is healthy and doesn't have a chromosome abnormality such as an extra copy of chromosome 21, which causes Down's syndrome. In order to establish this, they either have to biopsy a part of the egg called the polar body or remove a cell from the embryo for screening. Both procedures are expensive, invasive and can damage the egg or embryo. Dr...

2011-07-05 12:14:03

Ovarian stimulation undertaken by women of advanced maternal age (over 35 years) receiving fertility treatment may be disrupting the normal pattern of meiosis "“ a critical process of chromosome duplication followed by two specialized cell divisions in the production of oocytes and sperm "“ and leading to abnormalities of chromosome copy numbers (aneuploidy) that result in IVF failure, pregnancy loss or, more rarely, the birth of affected children with conditions such as Down's...

2011-07-04 12:49:36

ESHRE study may answer the question in older women Ovarian stimulation undertaken by women of advanced maternal age (over 35 years) receiving fertility treatment may be disrupting the normal pattern of meiosis "“ a critical process of chromosome duplication followed by two specialised cell divisions in the production of oocytes and sperm "“ and leading to abnormalities of chromosome copy numbers (aneuploidy) that result in IVF failure, pregnancy loss or, more rarely, the birth of...

2011-06-08 08:00:00

NEW YORK, June 8, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Ronald W. Davis, PhD, a pioneer in innovative biotechnologies, particularly the development and practical application of recombinant DNA and genomic methods to biological organisms, will receive the 2011 Genetics Prize of The Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation. Davis, 69, has spent most of his professional life at Stanford University, where he is a professor of biochemistry and genetics. He also serves as director of the Stanford Genome Technology...