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Latest Chromosomes Stories

2011-06-15 13:30:29

Genes control everything from eye color to disease susceptibility, and inheritance - the passing of the genes from generation to generation after they have been duplicated - depends on centromeres. Located in the little pinched waist of each chromosome, centromeres control the movements that separate sister chromosomes when cells divide ensuring that each daughter cell inherits a complete copy of each chromosome. It has long been known that centromeres are not formed solely from DNA; rather,...

2011-05-17 08:00:00

Study of institutionalized Romanian children finds prematurely shortened telomeres, a mark of cell aging BOSTON, May 17, 2011 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Studies in institutionalized Romanian children have found that the length of time spent in conditions of social deprivation and neglect correlates with lower IQ and behavioral problems. A new study, led by researchers at Children's Hospital Boston and Tulane University, shows that early adversity even affects children's chromosomes -...

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2011-05-16 14:43:53

A new blood test is going on sale this year that will predict how long someone has to live, based on their speed of aging. Researchers developed the $700 test that accurately measures the length of a person's telomeres, which is thought to be linked to longevity. Telomeres are sections of DNA that cap the ends of chromosomes, protecting them from damage and the loss of cell functions associated with aging. Life Length, a Spanish firm, developed the new commercial "death test," which it...

2011-05-06 14:25:04

Cancer researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center are helping unlock the cellular-level function of the telomerase enzyme, which is linked to the disease's growth. Their latest findings, published today in Molecular Cell, demonstrate that telomerase repairs chromosomes in one of two ways "“ depending on whether a cell is dividing normally or if the cell is under stress from enzyme inhibition "“ and could lead to new or improved cancer-fighting therapies that promote inhibition...

2011-04-28 21:19:59

FINDINGS: Whitehead Institute scientists report that two proteins once thought to have only supporting roles, are the true "stars" of the kinetochore assembly process in human cells. RELEVANCE: The kinetochore is vital to proper DNA distribution during cell division. This finding suggests that scientists may be able to stimulate kinetochore assembly in a process that could lead to new genetic research tools, such as efficient creation of artificial human chromosomes. Widespread use of...

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2011-04-24 16:07:21

In stark contrast to normal cells, which only divide a finite number of times before they enter into a permanent state of growth arrest or simply die, cancer cells never cease to proliferate. Now, scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have uncovered an important clue to one of the mechanisms underlying cancer cell immortality.Their findings, published in the April 22, 2011 issue of Molecular Cell, reveal an unanticipated structure at chromosome ends, which could be a key...

2011-04-21 23:03:29

A study of DNA rearrangements in roundworm chromosomes may offer new insight into large-scale genome duplications that occur in developing tumors. A report of the research led by University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine scientists was published in the April 22 online edition of the journal Science. The study focused on telomeres, a region of repetitive DNA sequence that protects the ends of chromosomes from deterioration or from fusing with other chromosomes. In many...

2011-04-04 19:49:47

UCSF scientists are reporting several studies showing that psychological stress leads to shorter telomeres "“ the protective caps on the ends of chromosomes that are a measure of cell age and, thus, health. The findings also suggest that exercise may prevent this damage. The team focused on three groups: post-menopausal women who were the primary caregivers for a family member with dementia; young to middle-aged adults with post-traumatic stress disorder; and healthy, non-smoking women...

2011-04-03 22:11:35

UT MD Anderson scientists also link the same SNP to longer telomeres A common genetic variation links to both bladder cancer risk and to the length of protective caps found on the ends of chromosomes, scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reported today at the AACR 102nd Annual Meeting. These endings or tips, called telomeres, guard against chromosomal damage and genomic instability that can lead to cancer and other diseases. "We found a single point of variation in...

2011-04-03 21:44:18

Results of a study presented at the AACR 102nd Annual Meeting 2011, held here April 2-6, lend credence to the idea that improving quality of life affects stress-related biological markers and possibly the health of people with cancer. Researchers know that telomeres shorten and deteriorate with aging, but they are learning that stress also affects telomere length. "We are trying to understand the interconnections between the mind and the body; that is, how does the diagnosis and treatment of...