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Clinical pathology Reference Libraries

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Mycobacterium bovis
2011-04-18 22:11:24

Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing, aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle. Similar to M. tuberculosis, M. bovis can jump the species barrier and cause tuberculosis in humans. It is estimated that M. bovis was responsible for more losses among farm animals than all other diseases combined in the first half of the 20th century. Infection happens after...

Lactobacillus casei
2011-04-18 21:59:17

Lactobacillus casei is a species of genus Lactobacillus found in the human intestine and mouth. Since it produces lactic acid it helps with the propagation of desirable bacteria. This species is documented to have a wide pH and temperature range. It also improves digestion and reduces lactose intolerance and constipation. Most often L. casei is industrial, specifically for diary production....

Lactobacillus acidophilus
2011-04-18 21:52:41

Lactobacillus acidophilus is a species in the genus Lactobacillus. It is a homo-fermentative species, fermenting sugars into lactic acid, which grows readily at rather low pH values and has an optimum growth temperature of 37 °C. It occurs naturally in the human and animal gastrointestinal tract, mouth, and vagina. Some strains have probiotic characteristics. Strains are commercially used in...

Gardnerella
2011-04-15 15:11:42

Gardnerella is a genus of gram-variable-staining facultative anaerobic bacteria of which G. vaginalis is the only species. It grows as small, circular, convex, gray colonies on chocolate agar. Colistin-oxolinic acid blood agar is a selective medium for G. vaginalis. Bacterial vaginosis results in some women as a result of disruption of the normal vaginal microflora. Lactobacillus population...

Francisella tularensis
2011-04-15 15:02:18

Francisella tularensis is a pathogenic species of gram-negative bacteria and the causative agent of tularemia or rabbit fever. It is a facultative intracellular bacterium. It is classified as a Class A agent by the U.S. government due to its ease of spread by aerosol and its high virulence. In 1911 the species was found in ground squirrels in California. There are four subspecies that have...

Enterococcus faecalis
2011-04-15 14:36:05

Enterococcus faecalis "“ formerly classified as part of the Group D Streptococcus system "“ is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. It is one of the main constituents of some probiotic food supplements. E. faecalis can cause life-threatening infections in humans. It is frequently found in root canal-treated teeth in...

Corynebacterium diphtheriae
2011-04-15 14:19:47

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. It was discovered in 1884. There are four subspecies C. diphtheriae mitis, C. diphtheriae intermedius, C. diphtheriae gravis, and C. diphtheriae belfanti. They all are a little bit different in their colonial morphology and biochemical properties such as the ability to metabolize certain nutrients. The diphtheria...

Clostridium tetani
2011-04-15 14:14:43

Clostridium tetani is a rod-shaped, anaerobic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. It's a gram-positive and resembles tennis rackets or drumsticks on a gram stain. It can be found as spores in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of animals. It produces a potent biological toxin which is the causative agent of tetanus. Ancient people recognized the relationship between wounds and fatal muscle...

Clostridium botulinum
2011-04-15 13:32:47

Clostridium botulinum is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that produces neurotoxins, known as botulinum neurotoxins types A-G, that cause the flaccid muscular paralysis seen in botulism. It is the main paralytic agent in botox and is commonly found in soil. It is also an obligate anaerobe, meaning oxygen is poisonous to the cells. Superoxide dismutase helps C. botulinum tolerate traces...

Burkholderia pseudomallei
2011-04-14 16:11:25

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium. It causes the disease melioidosis in humans and animals and is also capable of infecting plants. The bacteria can from in a number of artificial environments. Optimal temperature is around 40°C in pH-neutral or slightly acidic environments. Most strains can ferment sugars without gas formation. The...

Word of the Day
cruet
  • A vial or small glass bottle, especially one for holding vinegar, oil, etc.; a caster for liquids.
This word is Middle English in origin, and ultimately comes from the Old French, diminutive of 'crue,' flask.
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