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Latest Cytogenetics Stories

2011-11-01 20:35:00

An international team of scientists, including biologists from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, may have pinpointed for the first time the mechanism responsible for cell polyploidy, a state in which cells contain more than 2 paired sets of chromosomes. When it comes to human chromosomes and the genes they carry, our tissue cells prefer matched pairs. Bundled within the nucleus of our cells are 46 chromosomes, one set of 23 inherited from each of our parents. Thus, we are...

2011-10-07 12:20:24

New findings of researchers from the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Mauro Mandrioli, Valentina Monti and Gian Carlo Manicardi) show that in aphids the two X chromosomes have a different inheritance. The study was published in Comparative Cytogenetics. Aphids are insects with a sex determination model based on the presence of two X chromosomes (XX) in females and a single X chromosome (XO) in males. Previous studies suggested that X chromosome loss during male determination was...

2011-10-06 13:08:46

In children with genomic disorders, often a gamete — egg or sperm — has gone disastrously awry with either a duplication or deletion of genetic material that results in physical and neurological problems for the subsequent child. Previous studies have identified a procedure called nonallelic homologous recombination, which occurs during meiosis or sexual cell division, as the event that most commonly occurs and results in this mistake in DNA. Researchers from Baylor College...

2011-09-29 23:08:10

NIH-funded study provides insight to the earliest stages of some cancers A novel technique that enables scientists to measure and document tumor-inducing changes in DNA is providing new insight into the earliest events involved in the formation of leukemias, lymphomas and sarcomas, and could potentially lead to the discovery of ways to stop those events. Developed by a team of researchers at the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), and the...

2011-09-27 13:19:22

New research presented today at the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology meeting has found a genetic region, which may control testicle development in the fetus. Men have XY sex chromosomes, and the development of testes is thought to occur after upregulation of the testicular SOX9 gene pathway, in the presence of factor SRY on the Y chromosome. However, the mechanism by which this testicular SOX9 upregulation occurs has so far been unclear. In this study, Dr Jacqueline Hewitt...

2011-09-19 23:08:35

Research Disputes Established Theory on Chromosome Activity Fruit flies have been indispensible to our understanding of genetics and biological processes in all animals, including humans. Yet, despite being one of the most studied of animals, scientists are still finding the fruit fly to be capable of surprises, as evidenced by new research at the University of Rochester. The latest revelation has to do with the activity of the X chromosome in male fruit flies. It was widely accepted...

2011-09-19 05:26:08

(Ivanhoe Newswire) -- A chromosomal "catastrophe" that occurs early in development may be to blame for some cases of developmental delay or cognitive disorders, according to new research. Investigators from Baylor College of Medicine analyzed the DNA of 17 patients who were referred to their center because of unexplained developmental problems. "Four were very complex," Dr. Pengfei Liu, a graduate student at BCM, was quoted as saying. "One had 18 rearrangements in one chromosome. It was...

2011-09-15 13:05:47

Using a diversity of DNA sequencing and human genome analytic techniques, researchers led by Baylor College of Medicine have identified some cases of developmental delay or cognitive disorders associated with a sudden chromosomal catastrophe that occurred early in development, perhaps during cell division when DNA is replicated. In a report in the journal Cell, Dr. Weimin Bi, assistant professor of molecular and human genetics, Dr. James R.Lupski, vice chair of molecular and human...


Word of the Day
negawatt
  • A unit of saved energy.
Coined by Amory Lovins, chairman of the Rocky Mountain Institute as a contraction of negative watt on the model of similar compounds like megawatt.