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Latest Cytogenetics Stories

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2010-11-03 14:40:43

Physical defects in plants can be predicted based on chromosome imbalances, a finding that may shed light on how the addition or deletion of genes and the organization of the genome affects organisms, according to a study involving a Purdue University researcher. The findings identify easily measured characteristics that vary with imbalances of specific chromosomes, said Brian Dilkes, a Purdue assistant professor of horticulture. Understanding why and how those imbalances result in certain...

2010-10-14 00:55:00

A team led by a scientist at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine has discovered a regulatory protein that influences where genetic material gets swapped between maternal and paternal chromosomes during the process of creating eggs and sperm. The findings, which shed light on the roots of chromosomal errors and gene diversity, appear in tomorrow's issue of Nature. Most cells contain 46 chromosomes, half coming from each parent. But eggs and sperm, known as germ cells, have half as...

2010-09-29 13:35:40

The yellow monkeyflower, an unassuming little plant that lives as both a perennial on the foggy coasts of the Pacific Northwest and a dry-land annual hundreds of miles inland, harbors a significant clue about evolution. Duke graduate student and native northern Californian David Lowry had become interested in how a single species could live such different lifestyles. He set out to find a gene or genes that would account for the monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus) being a lush, moisture-loving,...

2010-09-16 17:28:25

New research from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) and The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), both in Toronto, Canada provides further clues as to why Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects four times more males than females. The scientists discovered that males who carry specific alterations of DNA on the sole X-chromosome they carry are at high risk of developing ASD. The research is published in the September 15 issue of Science Translational Medicine. ASD is a...

2010-09-09 10:51:51

University of Pennsylvania biologists studying human reproduction have identified what is likely the major contributing factor to the maternal age-associated increase in aneuploidy, the term for an abnormal number of chromosomes during reproductive cell division. Using naturally aging mouse models, researchers showed that this basic fact of reproductive life is most likely caused by weakened chromosome cohesion.  Older oocytes, or egg cells, have dramatically reduced amounts of a...

2010-09-03 14:42:31

Female induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, reprogrammed from human skin cells into cells that have the embryonic-like potential to become any cell in the body, retain an inactive X chromosome, stem cell researchers at UCLA have found. The finding could have implications for studying X chromosome-linked diseases such as Rett syndrome, caused by mutations in a gene located on the X chromosome. The findings differ from those seen in mouse skin cells that are reprogrammed into iPS cells, in...

2010-07-29 17:13:22

A genetics research team based at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia continues to discover recurrent translocations"”places in which two chromosomes exchange pieces of themselves. As many as 1 in 600 persons carry balanced chromosome translocations, which involve no loss or gain of DNA. Most such people appear healthy, but may have a child with abnormal chromosome composition and disabilities resulting from disrupted, extra or missing copies of genes. While rare, such diseases...

2010-07-29 11:00:00

PHILADELPHIA, July 29 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ --A genetics research team based at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia continues to discover recurrent translocations--places in which two chromosomes exchange pieces of themselves. As many as 1 in 600 persons carry balanced chromosome translocations, which involve no loss or gain of DNA. Most such people appear healthy, but may have a child with abnormal chromosome composition and disabilities resulting from disrupted, extra or missing...

2010-07-21 13:49:00

SEATTLE, July 21 /PRNewswire/ -- A Seattle-area mother and her four-month-old daughter represent a tiny number of births nationwide - perhaps among the first three- using a technology that could be the next major advancement in reducing multiple miscarriages. Sheila Gruber, 34, of Duval, had suffered two consecutive miscarriages prior to undergoing a form of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryonic analysis that allows geneticists to examine about one-fourth of the entire human genome...

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2010-07-02 07:51:22

Although clubfoot is one of the most common congenital birth defects, few genetic causes have been found. Now, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found what they believe to be the most common cause of inherited clubfoot yet discovered. By performing a routine genetic screening on 66 patients with an inherited form of clubfoot, Christina Gurnett, MD, PhD, a Washington University pediatric geneticist and neurologist at St. Louis Children's Hospital, and...