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Latest Cytogenetics Stories

2009-09-10 10:33:26

New study proves that communication between male and female occurs in our innermost beings In the week that the University of Leicester celebrates the 25th anniversary of the discovery of DNA fingerprinting (Thursday September 10) new findings from the world-renowned University of Leicester Department of Genetics reveal for the first time that the male and female do truly communicate "“at least at the fundamental genetic level. The research counters scientific theory that the X and Y...

2009-09-03 15:25:35

The unique mechanism behind the evolutionary survival of the human Y chromosome may also be responsible for a range of sex disorders, from failed sperm production to sex reversal to Turner Syndrome. Roughly six years ago, David Page's lab at Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research reported the discovery of eight large areas of mirror-imaged genetic sequences, or palindromes, along the Y chromosome. Because the Y chromosome essentially has no partner with which to swap genes, a process...

2009-08-17 09:24:38

Parents of healthy newborns often remark on the miracle of life. The joining of egg and sperm to create such delightful creatures can seem dazzlingly beautiful if the chromosome information from each parent has been translated properly into the embryo and newborn.The darker side is that when extra copies of chromosomes or fewer than the normal 46 (23 from each parent) are present, tragic birth defects can occur. Now, scientists at the University of Georgia have developed a model system for...

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2009-08-13 10:50:00

Extra genomes appear, on average, to offer no benefit or disadvantage to plants, but still play a key role in the origin of new species, say scientists from Indiana University Bloomington and three other institutions in this week's Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.Plant biologists have long suspected polyploidy -- the heritable acquisition of extra chromosome sets -- was a gateway to speciation. But the consensus was that polyploidy is a minor force, a mere anomaly that...

2009-07-21 18:59:29

 Scientists at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have published new findings about a cause of a condition at the root of genetic disorders such as Down Syndrome, pregnancy loss and infertility.Called aneuploidy, the condition is an abnormal number of chromosomes, and the research team found that if a mother's egg cell has a mutation in just one copy of a gene, called Bub1, then she is less likely to have offspring that survive to...

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2009-07-20 10:09:42

Scientists have a better understanding of what causes an abnormal number of chromosomes in offspring, a condition called aneuploidy that encompasses the most common genetic disorders in humans, such as Down syndrome, and is a leading cause of pregnancy loss. To pinpoint what goes awry in these cases, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville studied mice. They found that if a mother's egg cell has a mutation...

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2009-07-17 08:50:56

Scientists have long suspected that the sex chromosome that only males carry is deteriorating and could disappear entirely within a few million years, but until now, no one has understood the evolutionary processes that control this chromosome's demise. Now, a pair of Penn State scientists has discovered that this sex chromosome, the Y chromosome, has evolved at a much more rapid pace than its partner chromosome, the X chromosome, which both males and females carry. This rapid evolution of...

2009-07-16 19:00:00

U.S. scientists say a rapid evolution of the Y chromosome carried only by men has led to a rapid gene loss that might lead to the chromosome's disappearance. Pennsylvania State University Associate Professor Kateryna Makova, who led the study, and researcher Melissa Wilson compared the DNA of the X and Y chromosomes in different classes of mammals. The researchers found that DNA of the human Y chromosome began to evolve rapidly 80 million to 130 million years ago. But while DNA on X...

2009-07-13 14:39:19

U.S. scientists say they've discovered a gene believed to be involved in meningiomas tumors might not be as major a factor as previously believed. North Carolina State University researchers compared human and canine genomes and discovered the gene commonly thought to cause tumors that affect the meninges, or thin covering of the human brain, might not be as important as thought for tumor formation. Humans suffering from meningioma frequently lose one copy of nearly the entire length of human...

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2009-07-10 09:45:00

Telomeres, the repetitive sequences of DNA at the ends of linear chromosomes, have an important function: They protect vulnerable chromosome ends from molecular attack. Researchers at Rockefeller University now show that telomeres have their own weakness. They resemble unstable parts of the genome called fragile sites where DNA replication can stall and go awry. But what keeps our fragile telomeres from falling apart is a protein that ensures the smooth progression of DNA replication to the...


Word of the Day
attercop
  • A spider.
  • Figuratively, a peevish, testy, ill-natured person.
'Attercop' comes from the Old English 'atorcoppe,' where 'atter' means 'poison, venom' and‎ 'cop' means 'spider.' 'Coppa' is a derivative of 'cop,' top, summit, round head, or 'copp,' cup, vessel, which refers to 'the supposed venomous properties of spiders,' says the OED. 'Copp' is still found in the word 'cobweb.'
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