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Latest Histone Stories

2009-08-13 16:00:00

EMBL scientists identify a rapid response team that monitors and quickly responds to DNA damageOur genome is constantly under attack from things like UV light and toxins, which can damage or even break DNA strands and ultimately lead to cancer and other diseases. Scientists have known for a long time that when DNA is damaged, a key enzyme sets off a cellular "Ëœalarm bell' to alert the cell to start the repair process, but until recently little was known about how the cell detects...

2009-07-31 14:13:41

A group of nanoengineers, biologists and physicists have used innovative approaches to deduce the internal structure of chromatin, a key player in DNA regulation, to reconcile a longstanding controversy in this field. This new finding could unlock the mystery behind the origin of many diseases such as cancer. The details of this breakthrough discovery are highlighted in a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) called "Evidence for heteromorphic chromatin fibers...

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2009-07-30 13:45:54

The body's nanomachines that read our genes don't run as smoothly as previously thought, according to a new study by University of California, Berkeley, scientists.When these nanoscale protein machines encounter obstacles as they move along the DNA, they stall, often for minutes, and even backtrack as they transcribe DNA that is tightly wound to fit inside the cell's nucleus.The findings come from delicate measurements of molecular-scale forces exerted on individual proteins that move along...

2009-06-25 08:46:14

Although every cell in the body carries the genes necessary to function as an antibody-producing B cell, only a small proportion of stem cells mature into those important immune-system cells. James Hagman, PhD, Professor of Immunology at National Jewish Health and his colleagues have identified two "molecular motors" that work in opposing directions to control the development of B cells. They published their findings June 19 in the online version of  The Proceedings of the National...

2009-06-19 13:54:13

Tumor-suppressor recruits help to overcome a barrier and fix cancer-causing defects Like a mechanic popping the hood of a car to get at a faulty engine, a tumor-suppressing protein allows cellular repair mechanisms to pounce on damaged DNA by overcoming a barrier to DNA access. Reporting online at Nature Cell Biology this week, a research team led by scientists at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center shows that BRIT1 connects with another protein complex to relax DNA's tight...

2009-06-16 07:10:58

Fathers may contribute more to the conception and development of a fetus than previously thought. A recent study from Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah, found the father's sperm delivers much more complex genetic material than once thought. Particular genes are packaged in a special way within the sperm that may help promote the development of the fetus. During a fetus' development, certain genes make decisions about the development of organs and tissue. New research...

2009-06-10 14:31:19

Researchers at The Wistar Institute have defined a key target of an evolutionarily conserved protein that regulates the process of aging. The study, published June 11 in Nature, provides fundamental knowledge about key mechanisms of aging that could point toward new anti-aging strategies and cancer therapies.Scientists have long known that a class of proteins called sirtuins promotes fitness and longevity in most organisms ranging from single-celled yeast to mammals. At the cellular level,...

2009-05-01 09:01:32

 A study led by cancer researchers at The Ohio State University has validated a method for reliably measuring variations in certain proteins that may make good biomarkers in chronic leukemia patients.The study shows that liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can measure variations in histones, which are spool-like proteins that help support and store DNA. The technology accurately detected differences in the composition of histones in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells...

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2009-04-16 15:37:52

An Emory University study shows some of the first direct evidence of a process required for epigenetic reprogramming between generations "“ a finding that could shed more light on the mechanisms of fertilization, stem-cell formation and cloning. The journal Cell published the results of the study on the nematode C. elegans in its April 17 issue. "We believe that we have demonstrated one of the processes that erases the information in a fertilized egg, so that the offspring can begin...

2009-04-10 08:39:04

Chp1, a histone-binding protein, helps recruit molecular machinery that establishes heterochromatin 'silencing' domainsThe DNA in the 23 pairs of chromosomes in each of the billions of cells of the human body is so tightly packed that it would measure six feet in length if stretched end to end. A genome of this size can squeeze into a cell's tiny nucleus because it is compressed into highly condensed chromatin fibers by proteins called histones.All chromatin in the cell nucleus represents a...


Word of the Day
omadhaun
  • A fool; a simpleton: a term of abuse common in Ireland and to a less extent in the Gaelic-speaking parts of Scotland.
This word is partly Irish in origin.