Medicine Reference Libraries

Page 9 of about 170 Articles
Vibrio cholerae
2011-04-28 15:06:23

Vibrio cholerae is a gram negative comma-shaped bacterium with a polar flagellum that causes cholera in humans. V. cholerae belongs to the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Classical and El Tor are the two types of V. Cholerae identified by hemaggluttination testing. El Tor is found throughout the world, while the classical biotype is found only in Bangladesh. It was first isolated as...

Treponema pallidum
2011-04-28 14:53:28

Treponema pallidum is a species of spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause treponemal diseases such as syphilis, bejel, pinta and yaws. Since the organism has a waxy coat around it won't accept the gram stain. The Dieterle stain is used to detect the bacterium. It is detected by serology, including nontreponemal, Rapid plasma regain, and treponemal antibody tests. It is a motile...

Streptococcus pyogenes
2011-04-28 14:40:22

Streptococcus pyogenes is a spherical, Gram-positive bacterium is the cause of Group A streptococcal infections. It displays streptococcal group A antigen on its cell wall. When it is cultured on blood agar plates it produces large zones of beta-hemolysis. They are catalase-negative and in ideal conditions it has an incubation period of about 1-3 days. It is an infrequent part of the skin...

Streptococcus pneumoniae
2011-04-28 14:27:08

Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic, bile-soluble aerotolerant, anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus. It was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century and is thus the subject of many humoral immunity studies. It causes many other types of pneumococcal infections other than pneumonia including acute sinusitis, otitis...

Streptococcus mutans
2011-04-26 23:21:38

Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive cocci, Facultative anaerobic bacterium commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay. J Kilian Clarke first described the microbe in 1924. The first colonizers of the tooth surface are mainly Neisseria spp. and streptococci, including S. mutans. The pioneer species changes the local environmental conditions...

Staphylococcus aureus
2011-04-26 20:20:41

Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobic gram-positive coccus, and is the most common cause of staph infections. It is commonly part of the skin flora found in the nose and on skin. Around 20% of the human population is long-term carriers. It gets its golden color due to its carotenoid pigment staphyloxanthin. The pigment acts as a virulence factor with an antioxidant action that allows...

Neisseria meningitidis
2011-04-25 16:38:12

Neisseria meningitidis is a heterotrophic gram-negative diplococcal bacterium best known for its role in meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during childhood in industrialized countries and is responsible for epidemics in Africa and in Asia. In the US there are approximately 2500 to 3500 cases of N....

Mycoplasma genitalium
2011-04-25 16:25:00

Mycoplasma genitalium is a small parasitic bacterium that lives on the ciliated epithelial cells of the primate genital and respiratory tracts. It is the smallest known free-living bacterium. Up until 2002 it was also considered to be the organism with the smallest genome. M. genitalium was isolated in 1980 from urethral specimens of two male patients with non-gonococcal urethritis. Infection...

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
2011-04-25 16:19:14

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a pathogenic bacterial species in the genus Mycobacterium and the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. Robert Koch first discovered it in 1882 and that it had an unusual, waxy coating on the cell surface which makes them impossible to Gram stain. M. tuberculosis is highly aerobic and requires high levels of oxygen. It generally infects the...

Klebsiella pneumoniae
2011-04-18 21:37:33

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, lactose fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped bacterium found in the normal flora of the mouth, skin, and intestines. It is the most important member of the Klebsiella genus of Enterobacteriaceae. It is naturally occurring in soil and about 30% of strains can fix nitrogen in anaerobic conditions. Hans Christian Gram...

Word of the Day
  • A somewhat riotous parade, accompanied with the blowing of tin horns, and other discordant noises; also, a burlesque serenade; a charivari.
'Callithump' is a back-formation of 'callithumpian,' a 'fanciful formation' according to the Oxford English Dictionary. However, the English Dialect Dictionary, says 'Gallithumpians' is a Dorset and Devon word from the 1790s that refers to 'a society of radical social reformers' or 'noisy disturbers of elections and meetings.'