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Scientists routinely seek to reprogram bacteria to produce proteins for drugs, biofuels and more, but they have struggled to get those bugs to follow orders.
Researchers have long known that high levels of a specific protein in human cells are linked to tumor growth – but no one has fully understood how.
Synthetic biology researchers at Northwestern University, working with partners at Harvard Medical School, have for the first time synthesized ribosomes -- cell structures responsible for generating all proteins and enzymes in our bodies -- from scratch in a test tube.
Berkeley Lab scientists create atomic-scale structure of ribosome attached to a molecule that controls its motion
Because of their central importance to biology, proteins have been the focus of intense research, particularly the manner in which they are produced from genetically coded templates—a process commonly known as translation.
Like musicians in an orchestra who have the same musical score but start and finish playing at different intervals, cells with the same genes start and finish transcribing them at different points in the genome.
- In medieval musical notation, a sign or neume denoting a shake or trill.