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Last updated on April 19, 2014 at 21:20 EDT

Latest Mitosis Stories

2010-01-05 21:37:13

Each cell inherits genes from its parent as well as epigenetic information "“ what amounts to an instruction manual that specifies which genes should be activated or "expressed," when and to what level. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) scientist Chris Vakoc, M.D., Ph.D., and his team have now discovered how some of these epigenetic instructions get stably transferred from one generation of cells to the next. The scientists report that newly formed cells inherit the knowledge of...

2009-10-06 15:10:30

When it comes to the two basic types of cells, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, compartmentalization is everything. Prokaryotes are evolutionarily ancient cells that only have a membrane surrounding their outer boundary, while the more complex eukaryotes have an outer membrane and membrane bound compartments within the cell. Perhaps most notable is the double layered membrane that surrounds the nucleus, the cellular compartment which houses the cell's genetic material. The genetic material is very...

2009-10-05 14:20:46

A Purdue University researcher has discovered that the absence of certain proteins needed for proper cell duplication can lead to cancer. Xiaoqi Liu, an assistant professor of biochemistry, found that cytoplasmic linker protein-170, or CLIP-170, plays a major role in proper cell duplication and DNA distribution. When the protein is removed, cell duplicates lack entire copies of DNA and can become cancerous. Liu's findings were published in the early online version of the Journal of Biological...

2009-09-14 15:41:39

New insights gained into how polyploidy and genomic change can lead to evolutionary change and plants' fitness and vigor An individual with Down syndrome and a male calico cat have one thing in common"”each has an extra chromosome. For animals, most instances of an extra chromosome result in birth defects or even death, but plants are another matter entirely. Many plants are able to survive the presence of an extra copy of their entire genome (known as polyploidy) and are often even...

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2009-08-24 08:21:19

Mitotic release of chromatin-binding RNA gives insight into X chromosome silencing Early in development, mammalian female cells counteract their double dose of X chromosomes by coating one of them with a large RNA named XIST. The RNA binds to the same X chromosome from which it is transcribed and initiates a series of events leading to the chromosome's permanent silencing. In the August 24, 2009 issue of the Journal of Cell Biology, Hall et al. exploit the fact that XIST temporarily...

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2009-08-17 16:25:00

"A biologist, a physicist, and a nanotechnologist walk into a ..." sounds like the start of a joke. Instead, it was the start of a collaboration that has helped to decipher a critical, but so far largely unstudied, phase of how cells divide. Errors in cell division can cause mutations that lead to cancer, and this study could shed light on the role of chromosome abnormalities in uncontrolled cell replication.The biologist in question is University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Associate...

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2009-07-01 10:25:00

Lars Jansen's work on the formation of the centromere, a key cellular structure in powering and controlling chromosome segregation and accurate cell division, has just earned him a paper in Nature Cell Biology and a prestigious EMBO installation grant, of 50,000 euro per year, for a maximum of five years.Lars Jansen moved from California to the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (IGC), in Portugal, last year to head the Epigenetic Mechanisms group. The Nature Cell Biology...

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2009-06-15 09:55:00

Study shows stalled microtubules might be responsible for some cases of the neurological disorder Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseaseStalled microtubules might be responsible for some cases of the neurological disorder Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, Tanabe and Takei report in the June 15, 2009 issue of the Journal of Cell Biology (www.jcb.org). A mutant protein makes the microtubules too stable to perform their jobs, the researchers find.The mutations behind CMT disease slow nerve impulses,...

2009-06-11 12:31:34

From the valves in a human heart to the quills on a porcupine to the petals on a summer lily, the living world is as varied as it is vast. For this to be possible, the cells that make up these living things must be just as varied. Parent cells must be able to divide in ways that create daughter cells that are different from each other, a process called asymmetric division. Scientists know how this happens in animals, but the process in plants has been a mystery.Now Stanford biologists have...

2009-06-08 08:32:37

In a new study, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute scientists disprove a century-old theory about why cancer cells often have too many or too few chromosomes, and show that the actual reason may hold the key to a novel approach to cancer therapy.Since the late 19th century, scientists have attributed the surplus or shortage of intact chromosomes in cancer cells to a kind of fragmentation in cell division: instead of dividing neatly into two identical daughter cells, as normal cells do, cancer cells...