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Last updated on April 18, 2014 at 5:48 EDT

Physical oceanography Reference Libraries

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Coral Reef
2013-04-20 15:49:21

Coral reefs are submerged structures consisting of calcium carbonate secreted by corals. Coral reefs are colonies of small animals found in marine waters that enclose few nutrients. The majority of coral reefs are constructed from stony corals, which then consist of polyps that come together in groups. The polyps are like small sea anemones, to which they are very closely related. Unlike the...

Current Sea Level Rise
2013-04-01 10:39:21

The sea levels all around the world are rising. Current sea-level rise has the potential to affect human populations and the natural environment. Two key factors have contributed to the observed sea level rise. The first is thermal expansion: as the ocean water warms, it expands. The second is from the influence of land-based ice because of increased melting. The major store of water on land...

Basic Ocean Terms
2013-02-05 12:52:11

Image Credit: Meteorologist Joshua Kelly When meteorologists are forecasting for ocean-going vessels, there are a few terms that we need to understand. The first term is wavelength. Wavelength is defined as the distance between two crests or between two troughs as seen in the image above. The example above highlights the crest to crest concept of wavelength. The next term that we use is...

Climate Impact On Your Budget For Billings Montana
2012-12-29 12:40:14

If you live in or around Billings, Montana the above graph shows you what you can roughly expect when it comes to heating and cooling your house during the ENSO Phases. In Billings during a normal phase of the ENSO your heating degree days pass 900HDD. However, when El-Nino phase is present the monthly average dropped to around 650.5HDD, which is a pretty significant amount especially when...

Climate Impact On Your Budget For Bismarck North Dakota
2012-09-18 13:29:03

If you live in or around Bismarck North Dakota the graph shows you what you can roughly expect when it comes to heating and cooling your house during the ENSO Phases. Bismarck North Dakota, with its northern latitude, does have an impact on what type of heating and cooling it sees. During an Normal Phase the HDD for the region hits about 1348 on average. When the region enters into an...

ENSO Effects On Ocean Waters
2012-09-14 11:46:45

The above graph highlights how the ENSO has an impact on water temps. Northern Gulf of Mexico during EL-Nino: The first part of March during this EL-Nino cycle saw water temps in the 56-60F range, while the 8-14th saw water temps warm to the 60-64F range. By the third week of March temps had maintained 60-64F. The last week of March the temps dropped back to around 56-60F. Northern Gulf...

Winds Impacted By The Cycles Of ENSO
2012-09-03 16:44:02

When it comes to wind, more and more people are turning to it as alternative option for electricity. One has to wonder what kind of impacts would be created by the different cycles of ENSO. The above graph has been done for Boston MA. The month of choice was to run it for March of all three cycles. Normal Cycle: (When we are in between EL-Nino and La-Nina) winds averaged around 0-5mph 9% of...

El-Nino Impacts For The Months Of January - March In
2012-09-03 15:50:59

Honolulu is located in the Pacific Ocean and has a mostly marine time climate. Honolulu has a pretty consistent temperature average from month to month. This is a look at the La-Nina impacts on the local area. January 2010: For the month of January it is typical to see average high temps in the 80’s while overnight lows drop into the 70’s. During the El-Nino event January temps were 60%...

Ocean Current Impacts On Weather
2012-07-30 13:25:48

The Peru Current flows from South to North along the western side of South America. This current transports colder air from the south northward towards the equator. This current is responsible for bringing cooler waters off the coast of Peru which is a big reason that they have such high fishing success. However this current can get altered during EL-Nino when the warmer waters of the Pacific...

Weather Terms
2012-07-30 09:39:02

Coastal Upwelling- this is defined as the moving of water from the deeper oceans upwards to the surface of the ocean very commonly found along our cold ocean currents, which are found along the West Coast of the United States and off the Peru coast. Coastal Sinking- this is defined as the warm waters moving in from the east and hitting the coastline and slowly filtering down towards the...