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Latest Structure of the Earth Stories

2010-12-17 13:23:49

Earth's internal dynamo generates average field in outer core 50 times that at surface A University of California, Berkeley, geophysicist has made the first-ever measurement of the strength of the magnetic field inside Earth's core, 1,800 miles underground. The magnetic field strength is 25 Gauss, or 50 times stronger than the magnetic field at the surface that makes compass needles align north-south. Though this number is in the middle of the range geophysicists predict, it puts constraints...

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2010-11-22 06:39:38

The first study to ever explore biological activity in the deepest layer of ocean crust has found bacteria with a remarkable range of capabilities, including eating hydrocarbons and natural gas, and "fixing" or storing carbon. The research, published in the journal PLoS One, showed that a significant number and amount of bacterial forms were present, even in temperatures near the boiling point of water. "This is a new ecosystem that almost no one has ever explored," said Martin Fisk, a...

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2010-10-27 14:03:49

Researchers at the University of Bristol reveal today in the journal Nature that they have developed a seismological "Ëœspeed gun' for the inside of the Earth. Using this technique they will be able to measure the way the Earth's deep interior slowly moves around.  This mantle motion is what controls the location of our continents and oceans, and where the tectonic plates collide to shake the surface we live on. For 2,900 km (1800 miles) beneath our feet, the Earth is made of...

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2010-09-25 06:40:00

Scientists have wondered for some time why certain seismic waves travel more quickly through the core-mantle boundary, a thin layer of the Earth's interior that lies between about 1675 and 1800 miles below the surface. Now a new study by Yale University and the University of California, Berkeley sheds light on the mystery by showing how this region behaves under the extreme conditions found so deep in the Earth. The findings, which appeared in the Sept. 24 issue of the journal Science, have...

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2010-09-18 08:14:00

The Earth's mantle and its core mix at a distance of 2900 km under our feet in a mysterious zone. A team of geophysicists has just verified that the partial fusion of the mantle is possible in this area when the temperature reaches 4200 Kelvin. This reinforces the hypothesis of the presence of a deep magma ocean. The originality of this work, carried out by the scientists of the Institut de min©ralogie et de physique des milieux condens©s (UPMC/Universit© Paris Diderot/Institut...

2010-09-16 20:54:59

India slides under Tibet, but how? During the collision of India with the Eurasian continent, the Indian plate is pushed about 500 kilometers under Tibet, reaching a depth of 250 kilometers. The result of this largest collision in the world is the world's highest mountain range, but the tsunami in the Indian Ocean from 2004 was also created by earthquakes generated by this collision. The clash of the two continents is very complex, the Indian plate, for example, is compressed where it...

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2010-09-03 14:03:42

Earth today is one of the most active planets in the Solar System, and was probably even more so during the early stages of its life. Thanks to the plate tectonics that continue to shape our planet's surface, remnants of crust from Earth's formative years are rare, but not impossible to find. A paper published in Nature Sept. 2 examines how some ancient rocks have resisted being recycled into Earth's convecting interior. Throughout the world there exist regions of ancient crust, referred to...

2010-09-02 11:24:30

Using a diamond-anvil cell to recreate the high pressures deep within the earth, researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have found unusual properties in an iron-rich magnesium- and iron-oxide mineral that may explain the existence of several ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs) at the core"“mantle boundary. A paper about their findings was published in a recent issue of Geophysical Research Letters (GRL). ULVZs"”which were first discovered in the early 1990s...

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2010-08-26 07:57:40

New seismic technique detects boundary between old and new lithosphere The North American continent is not one thick, rigid slab, but a layer cake of ancient, 3 billion-year-old rock on top of much newer material probably less than 1 billion years old, according to a new study by seismologists at the University of California, Berkeley. The finding, which is reported in the Aug. 26 issue of Nature, explains inconsistencies arising from new seismic techniques being used to explore the interior...

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2010-08-12 06:15:00

Researchers discover evidence for the oldest Earth mantle reservoir on Baffin IslandResearchers have found a primitive Earth mantle reservoir on Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. Geologist Matthew Jackson and his colleagues from a multi-institution collaboration report the finding--the first discovery of what may be a primitive Earth mantle--this week in the journal Nature.The Earth's mantle is a rocky, solid shell that is between the Earth's crust and the outer core, and makes up about...


Latest Structure of the Earth Reference Libraries

Seismology
2014-01-12 00:00:00

Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes and the spread of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies. The field includes studies of earthquake effects, such as tsunamis in addition to diverse seismic sources such as tectonic, volcanic, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes. A related field that utilizes geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology. A recording of earth motion as a function of time is a seismogram. A...

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2014-01-12 00:00:00

Earth science (or geoscience) is the science of the planet Earth. Earth science can be broken down into four major disciplines, which are: geography, geology, geophysics, and geodesy. These disciplines use physics, chemistry, biology, chronology and mathematics to arrive to a greater understanding of the principal areas of the Earth system. Since Earth is the only known life-bearing planet, Earth science is solely dedicated to the geophysical makeup of our own planet. One discipline,...

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2004-10-19 04:45:41

Meteorite -- A meteorite is a relatively small extraterrestrial material body that reaches the Earth's surface. While in space these bodies are called meteoroids. Upon entering the atmosphere air drag and friction will cause the body to heat up, emitting light, thus forming a meteor, fireball, or shooting star. Most meteors disintegrate in the air, making impact events (Earth impacts) on the surface of Earth uncommon. About 500 baseball sized rocks a year reach the surface. Large...

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2004-10-19 04:45:40

Earth -- in geology and astronomy, fifth largest planet of the solar system and the only planet definitely known to support life. Gravitational forces have molded the earth, like all celestial bodies, into a spherical shape. However, the earth is not an exact sphere, being slightly flattened at the poles and bulging at the equator. The equatorial diameter is c.7,926 mi (12,760 km) and the polar diameter 7,900 mi (12,720 km); the circumference at the equator is c.24,830 mi (40,000 km)....

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Word of the Day
jument
  • A beast of burden; also, a beast in general.
'Jument' ultimately comes from the Latin 'jugum,' yoke.
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