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Last updated on April 17, 2014 at 12:46 EDT

Latest X-inactivation Stories

2014-03-27 13:07:49

Results help explain puzzling features of 'dot chromosome' In previous research, UC Berkeley scientists Beatriz Vicoso, Ph.D., and Doris Bachtrog, Ph.D., determined that genes on the so-called "dot chromosome," or fourth chromosome, of the fruit fly Drosophilia melanogaster are X-linked in three other related fly species. These and other findings revealed that the fruit fly's "dot chromosome" had descended from a differentiated X chromosome and suggests that several of the chromosome's...

Calico Cats Inspire Research Into X Chromosome Inactivation
2014-02-19 04:31:40

April Flowers for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online Calico cats are renowned and beloved for their funky orange and black patchwork or "tortoiseshell" fur. Cat Breeds Encyclopedia reports that these felines — considered to be good luck in several countries — are 90 percent female, suggesting that the color pattern is related to the gender of the animal. New research from the University of California San Francisco (UCSF), has further linked this unique color pattern to X chromosome...

2013-10-23 11:27:14

Genome-wide changes result from silencing extra chromosome, scientists report at ASHG 2013 The first evidence that the underlying genetic defect responsible for trisomy 21, also known as Down syndrome, can be suppressed in laboratory cultures of patient-derived stem cells was presented today (Oct. 22) at the American Society of Human Genetics 2013 annual meeting in Boston. People with Down syndrome are born with an extra chromosome 21, which results in a variety of physical and...

A Look At The Early Evolution Of Sex Chromosomes
2012-08-06 18:24:30

Two new studies offer insight into sex chromosome evolution by focusing on papaya, a multimillion dollar crop plant with a sexual problem (as far as growers are concerned) and a complicated past. The findings are described in two papers in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The research reveals that the papaya sex chromosomes have undergone dramatic changes in their short evolutionary histories (they are about 7 million years old; by comparison, human sex chromosomes...

2012-05-03 19:25:16

Results suggest researchers implement careful quality control A team led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute and the University of California (UC) San Diego has discovered a new type of dynamic change in human stem cells. Last year, this team reported recurrent changes in the genomes of human pluripotent stem cells as they are expanded in culture. The current report, which appears in the May 4, 2012 issue of the journal Cell Stem Cell, shows that these cells can also change...

2011-12-01 18:49:37

Established human embryonic cell lines, including those approved for federal research funding under former President George W. Bush, are different than newly derived human embryonic stem cell lines, according to a study by UCLA stem cell researchers. The finding, by scientists with the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA, points to the importance of continuing to derive new stem cell lines so researchers can better understand pluripotency,...

2010-09-03 14:42:31

Female induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, reprogrammed from human skin cells into cells that have the embryonic-like potential to become any cell in the body, retain an inactive X chromosome, stem cell researchers at UCLA have found. The finding could have implications for studying X chromosome-linked diseases such as Rett syndrome, caused by mutations in a gene located on the X chromosome. The findings differ from those seen in mouse skin cells that are reprogrammed into iPS cells, in...

2010-05-14 10:00:12

Oxygen levels in the lab can permanently alter human embryonic stem (ES) cells, specifically inducing X chromosome inactivation in female cells, according to Whitehead Institute researchers. Human ES cells have been routinely created and maintained at atmospheric levels of oxygen, which is about 20%. Cells in the body are usually exposed to only 1-9% oxygen. "When human ES cells are isolated at 20% oxygen, they are stressed and they inactivate one X chromosome in female cells," says Founding...

2010-03-16 16:00:02

Male mice born with female sex chromosomes experience hypertension seen in postmenopausal women Washington, DC "“ Researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC) have determined that something in female sex chromosomes appears to trigger a rise in blood pressure after the onset of menopause. This finding challenges the current belief that sex hormones are largely responsible for regulating blood pressure. Their work, reported online Monday in Hypertension, is the first of its...

2009-07-01 13:51:36

 Because females carry two copies of the X chromosome to males' one X and one Y, they harbor a potentially toxic double dose of the over 1000 genes that reside on the X chromosome. To compensate for this imbalance, mammals such as mice and humans shut down one entire X-chromosome through a phenomenon known as X-inactivation. For almost two decades, researchers have believed that one particular gene, called Xist, provides the molecular trigger of X-inactivation. Now, a new UNC study...