What is Diabetes Mellitus Type 1?

Diabetes, in general, is a chronic condition in which the blood glucose level of an individual is constantly reported to be higher than what is considered normal. Type 1 diabetes is a sub-category of diabetic conditions, which takes place when the immune system of the patient’s body attacks the cells responsible for the generation of insulin. These cells are known as beta cells, and they work to generate insulin in the pancreas and releases the insulin to assist in digesting the glucose content in food.

When the beta cells are destroyed, insulin secretion is significantly reduced or even ceased, and the human body is unable to regulate the amount of glucose that passes into the blood. Hence, the blood glucose level increases. The reason for beta cells failure has not yet been clearly identified by scientific research, although a genetic disturbance is generally suspected. This means that Type-1 diabetes can be inherited from a previous generation. The disease is most commonly detected in children and young adults.

Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes

Since a high blood sugar level occurs in both diabetes Type 1 and Type 2, the symptoms are common between the two conditions. These include frequent urination, fatigue, and extreme thirst, as well as a general feeling of nausea and dizziness. In severe situations, patients may even fall into diabetic comas.

Common Complications Associated with Type-1 Diabetes

Increasing the blood glucose level causes a number of complications as it disturbs the water-to-sugar ratio in the blood and cells within the patient’s body. This has been found to produce a number of complications that differ from one patient to another. The three most commonly experienced complications are diabetic polyneuropathy, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic retinopathy, affecting the nerves, kidneys, and retinas of the patient’s eyes. The tiny blood vessels feeding the retina and kidney tissues get damaged as a result of diabetes and may cause the patient to lose vision or suffer from kidney failure. Furthermore, nerve damage may take place, which may implicate the patient’s pain and temperature sensations.

Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes

The treatment of type 1 diabetes patients typically focuses on insulin therapies in order to monitor and regulate the blood sugar levels. Well-prepared dietary plans are also essential to make sure the intake of insulin is sufficient in relation to the patient’s food intake. This ensures optimal absorption of the digested food and prevents the blood sugar level from significantly increasing or decreasing. Treatment protocols will help keep the condition under control and would minimize the risk of long-term complications.

It is important to note that no cure has been developed for diabetes yet. By maintaining an appropriate diet and receiving the right dosage of insulin, Type-1 diabetes patients can still have a normal life.

References

https://www.diabetes.co.uk/difference-between-type1-and-type2-diabetes.html

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes/…causes/syc-20353011

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0072523/

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